Modi with Xi in Wuhan
THE INDIAN AIR strikes on February 26th on targets inside Pakistani-held territory cannot obscure the re- surfacing of India-China tensions following the Valentine’s Day terrorist attack in Pulwama that killed dozens of Indian paramilitary troops. China’s culpability in the attack—and in previous lethal cross-border terrorist strikes, such as on the Pathankot airbase—is apparent from its shielding of Pakistan’s export of terrorism to India.
The message from India’s use of air power for the first time against cross-border terrorist sanctuaries is that it is not afraid to escalate its response to the aerial domain in order to call Pakistan’s nuclear bluff. This could potentially mark a defining moment in India’s counter-terrorism efforts against Pakistan’s strategy to inflict death by a thousand cuts.
The air strikes, however, are likely to reinforce Beijing’s determination to bolster Pakistan as a counterweight to India, especially because China incurs no strategic or trade costs for containing India. Beijing is not only propping up the Pakistani state financially and militarily, but also has repeatedly blocked United Nations action against the chief of the Pakistan- based Jaish-e-Muhammad terrorist group, which was quick to claim responsibility for the Pulwama massacre.
The paradox is that China, the world’s longest-surviving autocracy, has locked up more than a million Muslims from Xinjiang in the name of cleansing their minds of extremist thoughts, yet is simultaneously protecting Pakistan’s export of deadly Islamist terrorism to India. While Pakistan employs terrorist groups as proxies to bleed India, China uses Pakistan as a proxy to box in India.
The New Axis of Evil (Illustration: Saurabh Singh)
The plain fact is that, for China, Pakistan is not just a client state, but a valued instrument to help contain India. So, is it any surprise that since the April 2018 Wuhan Summit between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping, Beijing has actually stepped up its use of Pakistan as an India-containment tool, including by accelerating the so-called China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and playing the Kashmir card against New Delhi? In fact, China is steadily encircling India, as several developments underscore—from its new military base in Tajikistan that overlooks the Wakhan Corridor and Pakistan-held Jammu and Kashmir to its increasing encroachments on India’s maritime backyard.
It is extraordinary that China has been able to mount pressure on India from multiple flanks at a time when its own economic and geopolitical fortunes are taking a beating. By China’s own statistics, its economy last year registered the weakest pace of growth in nearly three decades. Add to the picture a new phenomenon—the flight of capital from a country that, between 1994 and 2014, amassed a mounting pile of foreign-exchange reserves by enjoying a surplus in its overall balance of payments.
Now faced with an unstoppable trend of net capital outflows, Xi’s regime has tightened exchange controls and other capital restrictions to prop up the country’s fragile financial system and sagging currency. The regime has used tens of billions of dollars in recent months alone to bolster the yuan’s international value. Not just capital is fleeing China, but even wealthy Chinese prefer to live overseas in a vote of no-confidence in the Chinese system.
Imran Khan with Xi in Beijing (Photo: Getty Images)
China’s internal challenges are being compounded by new external factors. Chinese belligerence and propaganda, for example, have spawned a growing international image problem for the country. More significantly, China has come under international pressure on several fronts—from its trade, investment and lending policies to its human-rights abuses. The US-led pressure on trade and geopolitical fronts has accentuated Beijing’s dilemmas and fuelled uncertainty in China. As long as the US-China trade war rages, flight of capital will remain a problem for Beijing. Its foreign-exchange reserves have shrunk by about $1 trillion from a peak of just over $4 trillion in mid-2014.
At a time when China’s imperial project, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), is running into resistance from a growing number of partner countries, Beijing is also confronting a US- led pushback against its telecommunications giant, Huawei. Meanwhile, China is alienating other Asian nations by throwing its weight around too aggressively.
This trend is likely to accelerate with the restructured People’s Liberation Army becoming less of an army and more of a power projection force, the majority of whose troops now are not from the army but from the other services. Indeed, the PLA’s shift toward power projection foreshadows a more aggressive Chinese military approach of the kind already witnessed in the Himalayas or the South China Sea, where China has fundamentally changed the status quo in its favour.
Beijing has pursued a troubling three-pronged policy to build pressure on New Delhi over J&K, where the disputed borders of India, Pakistan and China converge
More fundamentally, it is China’s open disregard of international rules and its penchant for bullying that explains why it remains a largely friendless power. Leadership in today’s world demands more than just brute might. Beijing lacks any real strategic allies other than Pakistan. When China joined hands with the US at the United Nations to impose new international sanctions on North Korea, once its vassal, it implicitly highlighted that it now has just one real ally—Pakistan.
China today is increasingly oriented to the primacy of the Communist Party, responsible for past pogroms and witch- hunts and the current excesses. Under Xi, the party has set out to demolish Muslim, Tibetan and Mongol identities, expand China’s frontiers far out into international waters, and turn the country into a digital totalitarian state. Consequently, four decades after it initiated economic reform, China finds itself at a crossroads, with its future trajectory uncertain.
Gwadar Port (Photo: Reuters)
It is against this background that the Xi regime’s increasing use of Pakistan against India stands out. Beijing not only continues to bolster Pakistan’s offensive capabilities, including in weapons of mass destruction (WMD), but is also working in tandem with that country to militarise the northern Arabian Sea. Chinese-supplied warships have already been pressed into service to secure Pakistan’s Chinese-controlled Gwadar port, the flagship project in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), which, in turn, is the centrepiece of BRI.
Through CPEC, China is seeking to turn Pakistan into its land corridor to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. And, as a US Defense Department report in 2016 forewarned, Pakistan— ‘China’s primary customer for conventional weapons’—is likely to host a Chinese naval hub intended to project power in the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. Such a naval base is expected to come up quietly next to the Gwadar port, directly challenging India’s maritime interests.
China, meanwhile, has actively aided Pakistan’s counter- strategy to the Indian military’s supposed ‘Cold Start’ doctrine. Pakistan’s counter is a mobile WMD capability centred on tactical nuclear weapons for use against enemy battle formations. The ‘Cold Start’ doctrine is reportedly the idea of a quick and limited Indian conventional strike in response to a Pakistan-scripted terrorist attack, so as to deny Pakistani generals the ability to raise conflict to a nuclear level.
While encouraging Modi's overtures to help instil greater Indian caution and reluctance to openly challenge China, Xi has embarked on a major build-up along the Himalayan border with India
That doctrine remains notional with no indication that India has either integrated it into its military strategy or reconfigured force deployments in order to execute it in a contingency. Yet Pakistan, with Chinese support, has fielded tactical nukes, creating a dangerous situation. Let’s be clear: Pakistan’s recklessness has been egged on by China. A full-fledged war on the Subcontinent will open opportunities for China against India that Beijing seeks.
Beijing has repeatedly declared that China and Pakistan are ‘as close as lips and teeth’. It has also called Pakistan its ‘irreplaceable all-weather friend’. The two countries often boast of their ‘iron brotherhood’. In 2010, Pakistan’s then Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani waxed poetic about the relationship, describing it as “taller than the mountains, deeper than the oceans, stronger than steel, and sweeter than honey”.
In truth, China has little in common with aid-dependent Pakistan other than a shared enmity against India. China and Pakistan are revisionist states not content with their existing frontiers. Both lay claim to vast swathes of Indian territory. Their ‘iron brotherhood’ is about a shared interest in containing India. The prospect of a two-front war, should India enter into conflict with either Pakistan or China, certainly advances that interest.
India will never be able to break the China-Pakistan nexus, however hard it might try. Yet successive Indian governments have failed to grasp this strategic reality. Virtually every Indian prime minister has sought to reinvent the foreign-policy wheel rather than learn the essentials of statecraft or heed the lessons of past national mistakes.
In fact, an economically rising India seeking to chart an independent course only gives Beijing a greater incentive to use Pakistan as a surrogate against it. For China, the appeal of propping up Pakistan is heightened by the latter’s willingness to serve as a loyal proxy. Given that Pakistan is an economic basket case dependent on Chinese lending, Beijing treats it as something of a guinea pig. For example, it has sold Pakistan outdated or untested nuclear power reactors (two such AC- 1000 reactors are coming up near Karachi). China has also sold weapon systems not deployed by its own military.
Pakistan's descent into a jihadist dungeon has benefited China, as it has provided an ideal pretext for Beijing to advance its strategic interests within that country
Less known is that Pakistan’s descent into a jihadist dungeon has benefited China, as it has provided an ideal pretext for Beijing to advance its strategic interests within that country. For example, China has deployed thousands of troops in Pakistan-held Jammu and Kashmir since the last decade, ostensibly to secure its strategic projects. The Chinese military presence there means that India faces Chinese troops on both flanks of its portion of Jammu and Kashmir, given that China occupies one-fifth of the original princely state of J&K. This presence also explains why India faces a two-front theatre scenario in the event of a war with either country.
More fundamentally, Beijing has pursued a troubling three- pronged policy to build pressure on New Delhi over J&K, where the disputed borders of India, Pakistan and China converge. First, it has enlarged its footprint in Pakistan-occupied J&K through CPEC projects, despite Indian protestations that such projects in a territory India claims as its own violate Indian sovereignty. Second, Beijing has attempted to question India’s sovereignty over Indian J&K by issuing visas on a separate leaf to J&K residents holding Indian passports. And third, it has officially shortened the length of the Himalayan border it shares with India by purging the 1,597-km line separating Indian J&K from Chinese-held J&K.
Add to the picture China’s shielding of Pakistan’s export of terrorism and its indirect encouragement of separatism in India’s J&K. The then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh cautioned in 2010 that “Beijing could be tempted to use India’s ‘soft underbelly’, Kashmir.”
While building projects in Pakistan-occupied J&K, a UN- designated disputed territory, China denied a visa in 2010 to the Indian Army’s Northern Command General BS Jaswal, who was to lead the Indian side in the bilateral defence dialogue in Beijing, on grounds that he commanded ‘a disputed area, Jammu and Kashmir’. At the same time, Beijing has signalled an interest in cleverly inserting itself as a mediator in the India-Pakistan tensions over Kashmir. This is part of China’s long-standing efforts to obscure the fact that it is actually the third party to the J&K dispute.
While playing the Kashmir card against India, China offers Pakistan security assurances and political protection, especially diplomatic cover at the United Nations. For example, China has repeatedly vetoed UN action against Masood Azhar, the Pakistan-based chief of the Jaish-e-Muhammad, which, backed by Pakistani intelligence services, has carried out several major terrorist attacks on Indian targets, including the Pathankot air base in 2016 and the Parliament in 2001. And in 2016, Sartaj Aziz, the then Pakistani prime minister’s foreign-policy advisor, said that China has helped Pakistan block India’s US-supported bid to gain membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the export-control cartel.
Pakistan has secured other major benefits from China as well. For example, China provided critical assistance in building Pakistan’s arsenal of nuclear weapons, including by reducing the likelihood of US sanctions or Indian retaliation. China still offers covert nuclear and missile assistance, reflected in the more recent transfer of a launcher for Shaheen-3, Pakistan’s nuclear- capable ballistic missile, which has a range of 2,750 km.
Chinese-supplied warships have already been pressed into service to secure Pakistan's Chinese-controlled Gwadar Port, the flagship project in the CPEC, which, in turn, is the centrepiece of BRI
In this light, a grateful Pakistan has given China exclusive rights to run Gwadar port for the next 40 years—a period in which it will receive, tax free, 91 per cent of the port’s revenues. The port operator, China Overseas Ports Holding Company, will also be exempt from major taxes for more than 20 years. Pakistan has also established a new 13,000-troop army division to protect CPEC projects. And it has deployed police forces to shield Chinese nationals and construction sites from Baloch insurgents and Islamist gunmen. China’s stationing of its own troops in the Pakistani part of J&K for years, however, betrays its lack of confidence in Pakistani security arrangements—and suggests that China will continue to enlarge its military footprint in Pakistan.
The Chinese strategic penetration of Pakistan, meanwhile, continues to be aided by the US factor, despite President Donald Trump’s suspension of American security aid to that country last year.
Although Trump publicly declared that Pakistan provides the US with “nothing but lies and deceit”, his desperation to get American troops out of Afghanistan has led to Washington cosying up to Pakistan again so as to clinch a final deal with the Pakistan-backed Afghan Taliban. Indeed, the US tentative deal with the Taliban in Qatar in late January was struck with Pakistan’s active support. Pakistan, in effect, is reaping rewards for sponsoring cross-border terrorism, thanks to unflinching Chinese support and the renewed US dependence on the Pakistani military in relation to Afghanistan.
Make no mistake. Despite slowing economic growth, a grinding trade fight with the US and an international pushback against BRI, China is able to bring India under greater pressure. If anything, it is a reflection of India’s pusillanimity that China continues to contain India without incurring any costs. Far from seeking to impose any costs on China, India is doing the opposite.
For example, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj’s presence in Wuzhen, China, in late February for the Russia-India- China (RIC) initiative meeting sent the message that New Delhi, for tactical reasons, was willing to whitewash Beijing’s culpability in the Pulwama massacre. RIC is actually a meaningless and worthless initiative for India, and the least New Delhi could have done is to force a postponement of the Wuzhen meeting at a time when the Indian republic was mourning the Pulwama mass murder.
Given that New Delhi is loath to impose any costs, including trade-related, why would Beijing cease protecting the Pakistani deep state’s terror campaign against India? In fact, India has allowed China to reap ever-increasing rewards while systematically undermining Indian interests.
Just consider one fact: China’s trade surplus with India, on Modi’s watch, has more than doubled to over $66 billion annually. By comparison, India’s new defence budget unveiled in February totals $42.8 billion, or just 65 per cent of China’s bilateral trade surplus. This underscores the extent to which India is underwriting China’s hostile actions against it.
India should be willing to employ trade as a tool to help reform China’s behaviour. Yet New Delhi continues to ignore calls from Indian industry and consumer groups for protection against the rising tide of Chinese imports that is undermining Indian manufacturing and competitiveness. Thanks to China’s large-scale dumping of manufactured goods, Modi’s Make in India initiative has yet to seriously take off.
In fact, Modi has little to show from his personal diplomacy with Xi. For Xi, the Wuhan summit has served as a cover to kill two birds with one stone. While encouraging Modi’s overtures to help instil greater Indian caution and reluctance to openly challenge China, Xi has embarked on a major military build-up along the Himalayan border with India. The build-up includes deploying offensive new weapon systems and advertising live-fire combat exercises. Meanwhile, Pakistan’s status as China’s economic and security client has been firmly cemented and Chinese encroachments on India’s maritime backyard have increased.
As China treats Pakistan more and more as a colonial outpost, with a government on Chinese payroll, the challenge for India from the Sino-Pakistan nexus is mounting. Indeed, just as Pakistan wages an unconventional war by terror against India, China is pursuing its own asymmetric warfare against India, both by economic means and by employing Pakistan as a proxy.
The hype from India’s latest counter-terrorism airstrikes on Pakistani targets cannot cloak this reality. Without forward- looking and proactive diplomacy that seeks to systematically combat the China-Pakistan nexus, India will continue to be weighed down. Only through more vigorous defence and foreign policies can India hope to ameliorate its regional-security situation, freeing it to play a larger global role.
Brahma Chellaney is a geostrategist and the author of nine books, including the award-winning Water, Peace, and War : Confronting the Global Water CrisisCredit-Open Magazine